李令华

美国专家认为:美国应该批准《联合国海洋法公约》

         博主前言:至2014年11月,全球已有166个国家成为《联合国海洋法公约》的成员国。美国应该批准这个公约吗?美国国务院和国家安全委员会前法律顾问 John B. Bellinger III做出明确回答:应该,参议院应该批准,美国应该加入海洋法公约。有关内容请看下面英文简介。

   目前,世界上批准联合国海洋法公约的国家包括了美国几乎所有的传统盟友和世界地域大国,而美国是目前唯一没有批准该公约的海洋大国。美国第112届国会,参议院就联合国海洋法公约的问题再次进行投票,更多的议员提出美国应该早日批准该公约。 30多年前出台的《联合国海洋法公约》为世界各国使用和管理海洋提出了全面的法律框架。1982年美国总统里根提出要修改该公约关于深海海底矿床和技术转让条款,经过漫长的谈判后,1994年这项条款最终确定下来,为世界各国批准条约,并付诸实施打下基础。据报道:几乎每一位在任美国总统,七位前国务卿和9位前任海军作战部长等都支持美国加入公约。

去年中国国际问题研究院学者的文章说,美国政府和社会各界一致认为美国加入《公约》的必要性和紧迫性在上升。美国一直视《公约》的诞生为美国外交的重大胜利,海洋行为一贯与《公约》保持一致,它还积极鼓励世界其他国家加入《公约》。这主要是因为,美国是第三次海洋法会议的主要发起国之一,作为主要的谈判国积极参加了《公约》全部条文的起草过程,从议题设置、规则制定到外交进程把控等方面均对谈判发挥了主导作用(见下面附文)。

  海洋占据地球表面的71%。 1982年公约是一个伟大的国际公约,它对世界各国人民的美好未来和生活有着十分重要的意义。公约签署国家越来越多,内容全面和丰富,具有权威性,是当代“海洋宪章”。签署30年来,公约在全球范围内的原则和实践得到了发扬光大,内容更加充实,比如各沿海国之间统一领海基点基线确定标准、划出单一海洋边界,小岛的法律地位在降低,以及合作开发区不应该在有争议的区域内建立等。国际海洋划界理论更加成熟和公平。近年来又有许多新案例出现,比如缅甸与孟加拉国的领海、专属经济区与大陆架,以及200海里外大陆架的划界等。

 

(附文:http://www.ciis.org.cn/chinese/2015-01/21/content_7626683.htm)

   

英文简介:


Should the United States ratify the UN Law of the Sea?

November 11, 2014


John B. Bellinger III,Former legal adviser for the U.S. Department of State and National Security Council. Currently directing a roundtable series on international and national security law. A partner at Arnold & Porter, LLP.
Should the United States ratify the UN Law of the Sea?

Yes, the Senate should approve, and the United States should join, the Law of the Sea Convention, to which 166 countries are already party.

When I was the legal adviser for the National Security Council, the Bush administration concluded after a careful interagency review that the Convention clearly serves U.S. national security, economic, and environmental interests. As a result, the Bush Administration strongly supported Senate approval of the Convention, as does the Obama administration. I testified in favor of the Convention in both 2007 and 2012.

The Convention provides clear, treaty-based rights for U.S. ships and aircraft to travel through and over the territorial seas of other coastal states. This is why the U.S. Navy, with the largest fleet in the world, has long supported the treaty. In this time of shrinking defense budgets, the Navy wants clear legal rights to freedom of navigation when it cannot have more ships to assert these rights in practice.

The Convention would also codify U.S. legal rights to exploit vast oil and gas resources on our extended continental shelf off the coast of Alaska (an area the size of two Californias), to mine valuable minerals on the deep seabed, and to lay and service submarine telecommunications cables. U.S. companies are not willing to invest the billions of dollars necessary to exploit Arctic resources unless they have the clear legal rights guaranteed by the Convention. As a result, the treaty is also strongly supported by the U.S. business community, including the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, major oil companies, the shipping and fishing industry, and telecommunications companies.

Unfortunately, some Republican Senators have blocked Senate approval of the Law of the Sea Convention based on myths and misperceptions about the treaty, including concerns that president Reagan opposed the treaty when it was originally drafted in 1982, and that it might now infringe on U.S. sovereignty. But the flaws identified by president Reagan were fixed by amendments to the treaty in 1994 (which led all other major industrial countries to join the treaty). And far from infringing on U.S. sovereignty, joining the Law of the Sea Convention would codify U.S. sovereignty over vast new oil and gas resources in the Arctic. Other countries have benefited greatly by joining the Convention, and the United States is losing out by remaining on the sidelines.

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